huguenots of spitalfields
huguenots of spitalfields
huguenots of spitalfields
huguenots of spitalfields
huguenots of spitalfields
huguenots of spitalfields

Pierre Allix (1641-1717)  

Pierre Allix was a renowned theological writer, an advocate of religious toleration and the most celebrated Huguenot preacher of the 1680s in England. He was born at Alencon and came to England in 1685.

Allix studied at the Huguenot Academy at Saumur and then became  minister of the  church at Charenton, near Paris. He fled to England in 1685, took Anglican orders and was licenced by James II to set up a church in Jewin Street without Aldersgate using the Anglican ritual in French language. He dedicated one of his books to King James, in gratitude for the treatment he and his fellow refugees had received. 

Louis XIV was troubled by his flight, and in 1686 he dispatched a special envoy offering Allix a pension of 4,000 livres if he would convert to Catholicism and return to France, which he of course refused.

Allix was a gifted linguist, distinguished in the study of Hebrew and Syriac,  fluent in English and also spoke Latin.  In 1686 the diarist John Evelyn writes, " I waited on the Archbishop at Lambeth, where I dined, and met the famous preacher and writer, Monsieur Allix, doubtless a most excellent and learned person ; the Archbishop and he spoke Latin together, and that very readily."

Allix was the author of many theological books and was created Doctor of Divinity by Emmanuel College, Cambridge, later became canon and treasurer to the Cathedral of Salisbury.

Allix made a very important discovery, that  the ‘Codex Ephraemi Syri’ was a palimpsest. The Codex was a fifth-century Greek manuscript of the Bible  written on parchment. The original script was removed by washing and the parchment was re-used and overwritten in the twelfth century. Allix was the first person to notice that the original writing which was just visible was Biblical, and many years later when advanced technology became available it was deciphered and translated. 


Peter ALLIX (1641-1717). Brief Life and Works:. Martyn Thompson

Studies on the Text of the New Testament and Early Christianity: edited by Daniel Gurtner, Juan Hernández, Jr., Paul Foster

The Huguenots: History and Memory in Transnational Context: edited by David J.B. Trim

Protestant exiles from France, chiefly in the reign of Louis XIV; or, The Huguenot refugees and their descendants in Great Britain and Ireland" 

John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture:  John Marshall

Isaac Basire 1704-1768

Isaac Basire was known for his work as a map engraver and was the first in a family of four generations of well-known engravers. His family came originally from Rouen in Normandy.

Basire was born in Wardour Street, Soho, the son of Jacques Basire from Rouen. He was apprenticed to a silversmith and then to a metal engraver/letterpress printer. He lived and worked in a house in St John’s Lane, Clerkenwell  from about 1739, working mainly on maps and book illustrations. His sons John and Isaac carried on the business there after his death.

His son James Basire 1 (1730- 1802) became known as an engraver of architecture and was Engraver to the Royal Society and the  Society of Antiquaries, his grandson James Basire 2  (1769 - 1822) also became  Engraver to the Royal Society and to the Antiquaries, and his great-grandson James Basire 3 (1796-1869) was also a line engraver.

 Inns of Court


The Quiet Conquest: The Huguenots 1685-1985 by Tessa Murdoch


Samuel Beckett (1906-1989)
Samuel Beckett was a poet, critic, novelist and playwright, born in Dublin in Ireland. He lived mainly in Paris and wrote both in French and English. His plays explore the human condition in the tragi-comic tradition of The Theatre of the Absurd. Samuel Beckett’s father William Frank Beckett was of Huguenot descent. Living in Paris at the time, Beckett fought in the resistance movement during World War ll and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature; he decided not to accept the award in person as he wished to avoid making a speech. The play Waiting for Godot is widely considered to be his most important work.  


Samuel Beckett


Jessie Boucherett (1825-1905)
Jessie Boucherett campaigned for equal rights and dedicated much of her life to the emancipation of women. She was the author of a book called Hints for Self-Help: a Book for Young Women, published in 1863. She was born near Market Rasen, the daughter of Ayscoghe Boucherett, who had been High Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1820. Boucherett attended a school run by the Byerley sisters in Stratford upon Avon where Elizabeth Gaskell had once been a pupil. After meeting Bessie Rayner Parkes and Barbara Bodichon, fellow campaigners, they set up a charitable organisation SPEW, Society for Promoting the Employment of Women in 1858. In 1926 the name changed to the Society for Promoting the Training of Women or SPTW. In 2014 it again changed to Futures for Women or FfW. SPEW allowed young women to became apprentices in jobs such as watch making, hairdressing and photography as well training in careers in accountancy and book-keeping. Today Futures for Women continues helping women improve their career prospects through training and education.

Jessie Boucherett

Dion Boucicault (1820-1890) was an Irish playwright who wrote over 200 plays including The Shaughraun and London Assurance; his plays are considered to be the forerunners of modern social drama. He was born Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot, in Dublin in 1820, the son of Anna Darley and a wine merchant Samuel Boursiquot who came from a Huguenot family. However, there is a theory that in reality Boucicault was Anna's son by Dr Dionysius Lardner, the Irish science writer and lecturer. Boucicault was famed for his skill in characterization and timing as an actor, for being an inventive director and innovative theatre manager. He was instrumental in getting the first dramatic copyright law passed in 1856. He helped to establish the royalty system for playwrights. Boucicault died in New York in America in 1890.



Abel Boyer c.1667-1729 was a journalist, historical and political writer, lexicographer, and theatrical producer. He was born at Castres, in Upper Languedoc, southern France and came to England in 1689.

He wrote numerous books including histories of the reign of Queen Anne and of William III. He also French-English dictionaries and. one of the best English-French dictionaries of its time. He also wrote a newspaper called ‘The Post-boy’ Boyer’s writing shows a special interest in Parliament. He published The Political State of Great Britain, a monthly journal giving, for the first time, regular details of the debates in the Houses of Parliament. He was a zealous Whig and supporter of the Hanoverian succession.

Theatrical Records: Or, An Account of English Dramatic Authors, and Their Works - Robert Dodsley

Abel Boyer

Jean Carré c.1520-1572  is credited with revitalising the English glassmaking industry. He came originally from Lorraine and fled to England in 1567. 

Carré learned his trade in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1567, he was issued a 21-year  monopoly from Queen Elizabeth to make "glass for glazing such as is made in France, Burgundy, and Lorraine." on the proviso that they trained Englishmen in this skill.  The English glass industry was less well developed than that of the Continent and was unable to keep up with the growing demand for good quality glass. There was an existing glass industry in the Weald of Surrey  which originated in the 13th century and this was where Carré established his works.Carré built two glass furnaces in Fernfold, on the Sussex-Surrey border, and one in Sidney Wood near Alfold in Surrey. 

Another furnace was built in London and focussed on Venetian-influenced glassware. Carré  brought to England glassmakers from Italy and the French regions of Burgundy and Lorraine, where the skill was well established. He introduced improved techniques which had  a lasting effect and improvement on Wealden glass, and his enterprise was carried on by the French refugee glassmakers he introduced.

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John Castaing   (birth and death dates unknown) 

John Castaing was a broker and founder of the newspaper ‘Course of the Exchange’   

Castaign arrived from France in the 1680s and by the 1690s was a rising broker in the City Exchange. He spent a lot of time at the famous Jonathan’s Coffee House in Change Alley, which was the main meeting place of City stockbrokers, and began listing the prices of stocks and commodities on the walls of the Coffee House. There was a rapidly developing market for all kinds of business and Government securities, and he took advantage of this by establishing in 1697  a twice weekly newspaper  ‘Course of the Exchange’   a list of European cities and the price for which bills of exchange on those cities sold on the Royal Exchange. There was also information on prices and conditions of sale of numerous forms of investments; shares, bonds, annuities and securities. Castaing’s prices were relied upon by many of the coffee houses in the City and his exchange rate was commonly used. This paper is now known as The Stock Exchange Daily Official List, and is the  third oldest continuously published newspaper in the world.

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The Quiet Conquest: The Huguenots 1685-1985 by Tessa Murdoch

Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic World:  John McCusker

Philip Cazenove (1798 – 1880) was the founder of Cazenove & Co

The Cazenove family were Huguenot financiers who fled from France to Geneva in the late 17th century and later came to London. Philip Cazenove was educated at Charterhouse and in 1819 he  joined the business of his brother-in-law John Francis Menet. 

In 1854 Cazenove formed a new partnership with his son and nephew. The partnership quickly rose to prominence partly because of its involvement in the financial side of the rail industry. Part of his success was also attributed to his relationship with the  Rothschild banking family, which became a financial partner in some of his transactions. The company acted as broker for the formation of the Bank of Hindustan, helped raise funding for the Atlantic Telegraph Company and the Great Eastern Railway Company and was involved in the creation of the Metropolitan District Railway Company, which built the London Underground. 

In later life he devoted himself to charitable works in the fields of church, education and medicine. His obituary described him as a businessman of great capacity and a philanthropist of large sympathies. 

The company became one of the leading stockbroking partnerships in London and gained a reputation as a preeminent investment banker, reputedly the appointed stockbroker to Her Majesty The Queen. The last Cazenove to work for the company was Bernard Cazenove who retired in 2004 and was Philip Cazenove's great-great-great-grandson. 


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The Quiet Conquest: The Huguenots 1685-1985:  Tessa Murdoch

The Chamberlen family were French Huguenots who had been forced to flee France after the decree of Catherine de Medici that ordered the slaughter of Huguenots in France during the wars of religion (1562-1598). Many of the male members of the family pursued medical careers, focusing on midwifery. William Chamberlen (c. 1640-96), the patriarch, together with his family, settled in Southampton in 1569. He his, eldest son Peter(1560-1631), and his second son, also called Peter (1572-1626), became barber-surgeons and midwifery practitioners.

Peter the Elder became surgeon and midwife to Queen Anne, wife of James I, and is believed to have invented the first forceps, which initiated the family’s success in difficult deliveries. He and his younger brother fought to keep the creation a secret in order to protect their trade, and the family’s secret was kept for over 100 years.

Peter the Younger’s son, another Peter, who went by the name ‘Dr Peter’ (1601-83), carried on this subterfuge, however his grandson, Hugh (1664-1728), was believed to have revealed the secret to the family’s success.


Chamberlen forceps 2



Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929)
The statesman and journalist Georges Clemenceau was Prime Minister of France from 1906-1909 and again from the end of World War 1 from 1917-1920. He was nicknamed Le Tigre or The Tiger for his skill in debating and tenacious journalism. Clemenceau was an important contributor to the French Third Republic. He was a major contributor to the Allied victory in World War I and was integral to the implementation of the Treaty of Versailles to establish peace after the end of World 1. Clemenceau’s mother, Sophie Eucharie Gautreau was of Huguenot descent.


Georges Clemenceau

Samuel Courtauld (1876- 1947) was an English industrialist and art collector who founded the Courtauld Institute of Art in 1932.

His ancestors were Huguenot refugee silk weavers who left France in the late sixteenth century. They settled in Essex and continued their silk weaving trade. The family business grew over time and eventually became a major local and international company in the early twentieth century.

Although the family appeared to have no interest in art or art collecting, Courtauld’s interest developed late in his life. He had a passion for modern art, such as the works of Gaugin, and bequeathed his wonderful collection to the Courtauld Institute upon his death in 1947.



Joan Crawford 2Joan Crawford (c. 1904-1977) was an American film and television actress. In 1999, she was ranked on the American Film Institute’s list of the greatest actresses of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

Born Lucille Fay LeSueur, she was the third child of Thomas LeSueur and Anna Bell Johnson, who was of French Huguenot descent. She began her career as a dancer, and in 1925 she started her onscreen career with MGM.

The actress gained recognition in 1928, with the smash hit Our Dancing Daughters, and a prolific and enduring career followed. After a lull in her career, Crawford left MGM and signed with Warner Brothers in the early 1940s. In 1945, Crawford won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role as Mildred Pierce in the film of the same name.

Source: &



David ‘Davy’ Crockett (1786-1836) was an American folk hero, soldier, frontiersman and politician. Davy was the fifth of nine children born into the rough world of the American frontier. Many European immigrants changed or altered their surnames, and this is also true for the Crockett family. The name was originally Crocketagne, and the family were descendants of Huguenots that fled to England, Ireland and America.

In 1812, Crockett volunteered as part of a group of militia against the Creek Indians. His duties included reconaissance and fighting both the Creek nation and the Red Coats (the British). Following the war with the Creek nation, Crokett became one of the principle commissioners of peace in Lawrence County, Tennessee, and was chosen by his contemporaries to be the Lieutenant Colonel of the 57th Regiment of Militia.

He ran for Congress in 1826, and was victorious. In 1827 he won the congressional seat in the election, but he was not reelected in the 1833 election due to his distaste of Andrew Jackson. Crockett had ambitions to liberate Texas from Mexico, but died at the hands of the Mexican army at the Alamo in 1836.


Davy Crockett 2



dollandAitchesonBrandJohn Dollond was the son of a Huguenot refugee, who was a silk weaver. He was born in Spitalfields in November 1706 and died in November 1761 aged 55. Initially he followed his father’s trade, but also found time to study Latin, Greek, mathematics and physics, and later became an optician, joining his eldest son, Peter who had started in business as a maker of optical instruments.

glassesJohn Dollond became known for his successful optics business and for patenting and selling achromatic lenses. His reputation grew rapidly and he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, publishing accounts of his various experiments. In 1761, he was appointed optician to the King, George III and the Duke of York and Albany.

After his death, his son Peter carried on the business and in 1781 he made bifocal spectacles. At the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, the Dollonds were awarded a medal for the excellence of their optical instruments.

Today, Dollond & Aitchison is still a well-known name in the field of optics. However, the company was absorbed into Boots opticians in 2009 and most of its stores are now branded under the Boots Opticians name.

Faberge egg 2Gustav Fabergé founded the jewellery firm of Fabergé in 1842. The Fabergé family was originally from north eastern France and were Huguenots. The family first fled to eastern Germany, then settled in the Russian province of Lovinia, now part of Estonia.

Gustav’s father Peter enjoyed the patronage of Catherine the Great. Gustav was apprenticed to Andreas Spiegel and after his apprenticeship joined the firm Keibel, and is recorded as ‘Master Goldsmith’ in 1841.

He opened his first shop in St Petersburg. His son, Carl, took over the family business in 1870. The production of the famous imperial Fabergé eggs started with Carl, and they became a favourite of the Russian Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II. The Fabergé company continued to prosper both locally and internationally throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.




William Frend De Morgan (1839 – 1917)
William Frend De Morgan was an innovative ceramic designer and part of the Arts & Crafts Movement with William Morris. He was born in London to a celebrated mathematician Augustus de Morgan, and Sophia Frend, a campaigner for women’s rights and prison reform. Having such forward thinking parents, De Morgan was encouraged in his pursuit of all things intellectual and artistic. In 1859 he attended The Royal Academy but soon realised that his interests lay in ceramic design, specifically tiles and stained glass. He began experimenting with new techniques in glazing and firing, as well as decorative skills and inventive use of colour. In the 1870s he revived and refined the technique of lustreware using a metal deposit in the glaze to create a shimmering, luminous effect. However De Morgan was not a brilliant business man and that along with changing tastes in design meant that his ceramics business folded. He re-invented himself as a novelist but it is his beautiful and unique ceramic ware for which he is greatly celebrated.

William Frend De Morgan

David Garrick (1717-79) was an English actor, playwright and theatre manager. He was the third child of Peter and Arabella Garrick and was born in Hereford. David’s grandfather, David de la Garrique, was a Huguenot who fled Bordeaux, France, when the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685. His son Peter was brought to England two years later.

David travelled to London, alongside Samuel Johnson, in order to seek fame as an actor. He made his legendary debut as Richard III in east London in 1741. In January 1742 William Pitt described Garrick as ‘the best actor the English stage has ever produced.’ From then on, his reputation and fame soared.

He became the manager of Drury Lane Theatre in 1747 and directed its productions for 29 years, before giving it up in 1776. He died in 1779 and is buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.


David Garrick 2





Alexander Hamilton is regarded as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. He was one of the signatories of the Constitution of the United States of America and was a delegate from New York.

Hamilton was born about 1755, apparently on the island of Nevis, British West Indies. He was the illegitimate son of a Scottish merchant, James Hamilton, and Rachel Faucette, an English-French Huguenot.

After his father abandoned the family in 1765, and his mother’s untimely death three years later, Hamilton became a ward of his mother’s family and moved to America to attend King’s College (now Columbia University, New York). In his twenties he became George Washington’s aide-de-camp in the Revolutionary War. After the war he became the first Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 and was the creator of the US central banking system. He died in 1804, after being shot in a duel.

Source: &

Alexander Hamilton 2 

Pierre Harache (c.1639-c.1712)  

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Pierre Harache was the the first Huguenot goldsmith to be admitted to the Goldsmiths Companyand the best known Huguenot maker of candlesticks. He was born in Rouen in 1639 and arrived in England in 1681.

Whereas in England a young man would learn his craft from a master, and then either remain  working for him as a journeyman or set himself up nearby, in France, when a goldsmith had completed his apprenticeship he would travel about and pick up new ideas and skills. Thus a French goldsmith had a much wider repertoire than his 'English counterpart.

In 1682 Harache was admitted to the Goldsmiths Company. Foreign craftsmen had never been welcomed by English silversmiths and in 1574  Freedom of the Goldsmiths’ Company was denied to  all foreigners. Harache  was obviously highly thought of as he was granted the Livery in 1687 and granted the Freedom of the City, which  was only granted under very special circumstances.

He made some of the  earliest  cast candlesticks with faceted, cast baluster stems. His work was of such high quality that it is referred to today as having heralded a new era in the  production of English silver. Among his patrons were the Duke of Devonshire, the  Duke of Somerset, and the Duke of Marlborough. 

The First Huguenot Silversmiths of London :  David McKinley

Sir John Houblon was the first Governor of the Bank of England from 1694 to 1697.

He was born in March 1632 and died in January 1712 aged 79. He was the third son in a family of ten sons and three daughters. He became more eminent than any of his nine brothers, four of whom were also prosperous merchants and two of whom served on the Board of the Bank of England.

fiftyNoteThe Houblons were descendants of a Protestant family from Lille, and Sir John had close ties with the French Protestant church in Threadneedle Street where he was an elder. He was a successful merchant, trading with Portugal, Spain and the Mediterranean.

He was a member of the Grocers livery company of which he was Master in 1690/91 and was elected Lord Mayor of London in 1695.

He married Mary Jurin in 1660, who came from a Flemish Protestant family and they had five sons and six daughters, but only two sons survived their father.

He had a magnificent house just off Threadneedle Street on the site later occupied by the Bank of England and also acquired a country house at High Ongar in Essex.

In 1994, to mark the tercentenary (300 years) of the foundation of the Bank of England, Sir Johnʼs portrait was included on a new £50 note, which was withdrawn ten years later.

Esther Inglis (1571-1624) was one of the finest calligraphers of the Tudor and Stuart period. She produced over sixty exquisitely illuminated documents and little books, illustrated with flowers and with embroidered covers. Most of her books were Protestant religious texts including psalms from the Geneva Bible and verses from the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. Inglis presented many of her books to members of the English court including Queen Elizabeth I, the Earl of Essex, and James VI, and to French and Dutch officials who were working for the Protestant cause.Inglis was born to Nicholas Langlois and Marie Pressot in 1571. Her father was a schoolteacher who later became Master of the French School in Edinburgh, and her mother was also a calligrapher. The family fled to England around 1570.

Hablot Knight Browne, who went by the pseudonym ‘Phiz’, was a famous book illustrator who worked with Charles Lever,Harrison Ainsworth and, most notably, Charles Dickens. Browne was of Huguenot descent, was born in Lambeth in 1815, and he was the fourteenth of Catherine and William Loder Browne’s fifteen children.

At a young age Browne was apprenticed to the skilled engraver William Finden. However, he soon found that he was unsuited for engraving. In 1833, he was awarded an important prize from the Society of Arts for a drawing he made of John Gilpin, which led him to abandon engraving altogether, in order to develop his skills in other mediums, such as etching and drawing.

Browne met Charles Dickens in early 1836, when Dickens was looking for someone to illustrate The Pickwick Papers.Thus began an important friendship and working relationship for both men, with Browne illustrating ten books, including David Copperfield and Bleak House.


Hablot Knight Browne

Sir Robert Ladbroke (1713-1773) was a prominent member of the Huguenot community in East London. He was a merchant banker in the City, Lord Mayor of London in 1747 and, from 1754, a Member of Parliament. Ladbroke was married to the daughter of John Peck, an influential dyer in the Spitalfield’s silk industry.

A monument to Ladbroke, sculpted by John Flaxman RA and erected in 1794, sits on the north side of Christ Church in Spitalfields. He is displayed in his Lord Mayor’s robes.

Sources: Dan Cruickshank, Spitalfields: Two Thousand Years of English History in One Neighbourhood (London: Windmill, 2017) and

Robert Ladbroke

silverCupPaul Lamerie was born in the Netherlands in April 1688 and died in August 1751 aged 63.

He was the son of a Huguenot French nobleman who had left France following the issue of the Edict of Nantes, which forbade the Protestant religion in France. His father moved to London in 1689.

silverShieldIn August 1703 Paul de Lamerie became apprenticed to a London goldsmith of Huguenot origin, Pierre Platel. Ten years later, de Lamerie opened his own workshop and was appointed goldsmith to George I in 1716.

His early work is in the simple Queen Anne styles, following classical French models, but later de Lamerie is particularly noted for his elaborate Rococo style which was fashionable in the 1730’s.

Among his customers were Tsarinas Catherine and Anna, Sir Robert Walpole, the Duke of Bedford and other members of the English aristocracy. He served on the Goldsmiths’ Company committees, and also served in the Westminster Volunteers.

A two-handled silver cup and cover by Paul de Lamerie, dated 1720, was among the wedding gifts of Queen Elizabeth II.

Paul de Lamerie died in London and was buried in St. Anne’s Church, Soho. There is a memorial plaque at the site of his workshop, 40 Gerrard Street, which was unveiled in January 1992.

Nicholas Lanier (1588-1666) was a composer, the court musician to King Charles I and Charles II. He was the first to hold the title of ‘Master of the King's Music’, an honour given to musicians of great distinction; the musical equivalent to the title of Poet Laureate.

He was a singer in the King's Consorte, played the lute in the King’s Orchestra, and played the viola da gamba.

Lanier was a descendant of a French Huguenot family of royal musicians, the Lanière family. His family fled France to escape persecution and arrived in England in 1561.

Captain Peter Lekeux (1684-1743) was one of most prominent master weavers in the English silk industry and one of the ten most wealthy Huguenots in Britain.

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Peter Lekeux was born in London. The Le Keux family were Walloons who were living in Sandwich and Canterbury in the 1560s, some of them were Pastors at the French Church in Canterbury. The Lekeux family were  among the most important in the English silk industry; Peter Lekeux’s uncle Colonel Peter Lekeux was Founder of the Royal Lustring Company and helped to formulate policy in the Weavers’ Company. His son, also named Peter, was also a weaver of Flowered silks and rose to become Upper Bailiff, the highest rank in the Weavers’ Company

Lekeux and James Leman were the first Huguenots to serve on the Court of the Weavers’ Company and he soon became a trusted member, representing the Company on committees and giving evidence to Parliament and the Commissioners for Trade. Lekeux bought at least 18 designs from Anna Maria Garthwaite, for very expensive and fashionable designs woven with silver thread. He became very prosperous (he would have been a millionaire many times over by today's standards) and owned a  large house in the new quarter of Spitalfields, the Old Artillery Ground. He left £7,400 in his will which would be over £1 million today. 

His title of Captain refers to his rank in the local militia. The militia  (sometimes called Trained Bands) were an important part of defence and served as a reserve force. They were made up of small groups of local men,usually of moderate wealth, who purchased their own weapons and trained together for the purpose of providing local defence.

Silk Designs of the Eighteenth Century: Natalie Rothstein 

Huguenots in Britain and France: Irene Scouloudi

The Early Silk weavers of London and Spitalfields: Richard Edmunds

James Leman (1688-1745)

James Leman was a celebrated silk designer and master weaver and one of the the first Huguenots to serve on the Court of the Weavers’ Company. The family came to London from Canterbury and possibly came originally from Tourcoing.

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At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to his father, Peter, and lived in Stewart Street, Spitalfields. James Leman trained as a designer as well as a manufacturer, which was unusual for weavers at that time.The Victoria and Albert Museum's earliest designs by him are dated 1706, just four years into his apprenticeship. In 1711 he was admitted as 'Foreign’ Master' to the Weavers' Company, and on his father's death in 1712 he took over the family business.

Leman rose to high office in the Weavers' Company, becoming a Liveryman. This was exceptional; the Company was reluctant to make the ‘foreign masters’ liveryman men. In 1731 he was elected Renter Bailiff, second-in-command in the Company. 

James Leman’s album is held in the V&A and is the oldest surviving set of silk designs in the world.  It contains ninety patterns created when he was a young man. The designs are most striking, mixing bold colours and natural and invented flowers, geometric patterns and architectural elements. On the back are explanations of how to translate the design into the woven cloth. They used metal threads which came alive by candlelight.

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The silk industry in London, 1702-1766, Thesis (MA), University of London 1961:  Rothstein, Natalie

David Lestourgeon (1660-1731) was a watchmaker who seems to have specialised in commemorative watches. In the Museum of London there is an example of a watch commemorating the death of William III, and another adorned with a bust of Queen Anne in the British Museum.

Lestourgeon was born in Rouen and moved to London in 1681. He was made a Member of the London Clockmakers’ Company (1698 -1731).

Lestourgeon was one of many Huguenots who brought with them to London important knowledge and skills from the major French clock and watch making centres.

Lestourgeon is mentioned in The Huguenot Clockmakers of Spitalfields, will be republished Spring 2019. ​
The Quiet Conquest

David Lestourgeon

The son of Huguenot refugees in Geneva, Liotard (1702-1789) is best known for his pastel paintings and portraits. His work is characterised by his careful craftsmanship and attention to detail, which contrasted the more common use of pastel as a loose, light medium, and highlighted the realism of Liotard’s approach.

Pastels were also easily transportable, allowing Liotard to travel widely in search of new subjects and commissions. He studied in Paris and then moved all over Europe including to Rome, Amsterdam, Constantinople, Vienna, and London. His explorations led him to paint some of the most famous individuals of his era, such as Marie Antoinette, the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the actor (and Huguenot) David Garrick.

He met his wife, Marie Fargues, the daughter of a Huguenot merchant living in Amsterdam, on his travels and went on to create studies and portraits of her and their children together.

Sources: and

Jean Etienne Liotard 10







lunnBunsallyLunnPlaqueA Sally Lunn is a large bun or teacake made with yeast dough including cream, eggs, and spice, similar to the sweet brioche breads of France.

It is served warm and sliced, with butter.  It was first recorded in 1780 in Bath in south west England.

There are many myths about the origins of the Sally Lunn.

It is said that the recipe was brought to Bath in the 1680s by a Huguenot refugee called Solange Luyon, who became known as Sally Lunn.

Walter John de la Mare (1873-1956)
This award winning poet, novelist and short story writer is renowned for his rich imagination and spiritual romanticism. He wrote prolifically for both children and adults including psychological horror stories such as Seaton's Aunt and All Hallows and his famous poem for children The Listeners, which has stood the test of time. De La Mare was born in Charlton, Kent and went to school at St. Paul's Cathedral Choir School in London. At sixteen he started work in the statistics department of Anglo-American Oil where he worked for many years. Having four children, he found it difficult to balance family life with writing but in 1908 he received a Civil List pension and was then able to concentrate solely on his creative work. His awards included The James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction and the 1947 Carnegie Medal for British children's books.

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Walter de la Mare

Daniel Marot (1661-1752) was was best known as an architect, decorative designer and engraver, but his talents also included furniture and fabric design, interior and garden design, theatre sets, and tapestries. He was born in Paris and left France in 1685, emigrated to Holland where he entered the service of the Prince of Orange. In 1694 he followed the Prince, by that time William III of England, to London.

Marot was appointed one of William III’s architects and Master of Works and designed the parterres and the Great Fountain garden at Hampton Palace, the Marble Hall at Petworth House, and William’s gilded state coach which today is the ceremonial coach of the Speaker of the House of Commons. He published engravings of his designs, which enabled his work to be disseminated widely, and gained popularity by craftsmen and artists all over Europe. Daniel Marot can truly be called an ambassador of the Louis Quatorze style.

In 1698 he returned to Holland in 1698 where he continued to work until his death.

Huguenots in Britain and their French Background, 1550–1800 pp 113-124 | Huguenot Upholsterers and Cabinet-makers in the Circle of Daniel Marot by Gervase Jackson-Stops
Bloody Foreigners: The Story of Immigration to Britain by Robert Winder

Daniël Marot 1661 1752

Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
Harriet Martineau was a Victorian sociologist, writer and social reformer. She was born in Norwich to wealthy parents of French Huguenot descent. Her father Thomas Martineau was the owner of a textile mill; her mother Elizabeth Rankin was the daughter of a sugar refiner. They believed in equality for all of their eight children. Harriet was one of the first female journalists, championing important social reform and women’s rights. She wrote over 50 books in her lifetime, becoming very wealthy in the meantime, but had become a novelist to make a living. In her time she was renowned and celebrated for her clear style and the way in which her ideals and opinions were shown through the form of narrative in her stories. She argued vociferously against slavery and inequality. For most of her life Harriet was deaf but travelled widely and leaves a vast legacy of intellectual analysis which has inspired modern sociologists.

Harriet Martineau

Alexander McQueen was a British fashion designer and maker of haute couture clothing. He was born in Lewisham, London, to Ronald and Joyce McQueen and was of Huguenot descent on his father’s side.

His ancestors, who were stonemakers, settled in East London in the late eighteenth century. In 1806, one ancestor, also called Alexander, married a woman of Huguenot descent named Sarah Vallas, whose heritage greatly appealed to McQueen.

McQueen knew that he wanted to be a fashion designer from an early age, and served an apprenticeship in Savile Row and attended the Rossetta Studio Workshops. McQueen received his Masters degree in fashion design from Central Saint Martin's College of Art and Design in 1992, which kickstarted his career as a fashion designer.

Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754) was a French mathematician who pioneered the development of analytic trigonometry and the theory of probability. He was known for ‘de Moivre's formula’, a formula that links complex numbers and trigonometry. He first discovered Binet's formula, the expression for Fibonacci numbers linking the nth power of the golden ratio φ to the nth Fibonacci number. He was imprisoned for his faith after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but was released and fled to London. There he became a close friend of Sir Isaac Newton and the astronomer Edmund Halley. De Moivre was elected to the Royal Society of London in 1697 and later to the Paris and Berlin Academies.

Peter/ Pierre Monlong (1664-1702)

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Peter / Pierre Monlong was one of the leading Paris gunmakers and was appointed Arquebusier de la Maison Roi and Gentleman Armourer in Ordinary to William III

Monlong left Paris and emigrated to London in 1684 and settled in Soho, outside the control of the Worshipful Company of Gunmakers. He made a pair of finely wrought and highly decorated flintlock pistols inlaid with silver filigree, considered to be some of the best guns ever made in England, now owned by H.M Armouries at the Tower of London. One of his flintlocks is also held in the V & A Museum.

His pistols were some of the mose elaborately decorated ever made  inlaid with scrolls, birds, animals and figures, including Diana and her hounds, Apollo driving the chariot of the sun on the trigger guard. The decorative motifs are derived from pattern books published in Paris in 1685 and 1693, which shows that he kept abreast of the latest developments in French taste even after moving to London.


Quiet Conquest, the Huguenots 1685 – 1985. Museum of London



Jacques Le Moyne (1533-1588) was a Huguenot cartographer and draughtsman of flowers and natural history who joined Laudonniere’s expedition to Florida in 1564. Le Moyne was the first artist to travel to the New World and documented Florida’s coastline, local flora and fauna, along with the Timucua Indians. When the Spanish attacked the French settlement of Fort Caroline, Le Moyne was lucky enough to escape, but sadly almost all of his illustrations were destroyed. He sailed back to France and redrew his pictures from memory. As a Huguenot, Le Moyne had to flee France and settled in England in around 1581 and lived there until his death in 1588. Whilst living in London he was patronised by Sir Walter Raleigh and courtier Mary Sidney to name a few. In 1584 he published the book ‘La Clef des Champs’ (The Key to the Meadow), a pattern book to serve as inspiration for artists and craftsmen.

Florida worship french column 1591



Peter Nouaille was the son of a Huguenot refugee who came to Spitalfields after 1785.

He was born in 1723 and in 1763 married Elizabeth De La Mare whose Huguenot father lived at and owned property called Greatness, near Sevenoaks, Kent, 23 miles from London.

It included a water-powered corn mill which Peter inherited and in 1760 he turned this into a silk mill.

In 1733, the Spitalfields’ weavers got Parliament to give them a monopoly of all weaving within 20 miles of London. The mill at Greatness was just outside the statutory limits so Peter escaped the monopoly. He specialised in silk crepe which was becoming a fashionable product.

In 1816 the mill was 140 feet long and 40 feet wide with at least two storeys – one of the biggest in Kent. It used an improved undershot water-wheel which he patented in 1812 and new methods of spinning (‘throwing’) silk.

Here he employed over 100 people, mainly women and children for whom he ran evening classes, and hired a local doctor to provide health care. He also built a row of cottages for senior staff.

In 1793, he briefly joined forces with another Huguenot friend, George Courtauld, but they did not get on and Peter later said that ‘he would not continue such a man in business for 500 a year’.

He also had much wider interests. ‘His house was constantly frequented by the most distinguished literary characters of the time’ wrote a friend later.

When the first Peter died, his son took over but after the end of the Napoleonic War in 1815, and the removal of protective tarrifs in 1823, the silk industry ran into problems, so the second Peter decided to close the business and sell the mill which was demolished not long after.

Isaac Olivier (c.1565-1617)  

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Isaac Olivier was born in Rouen, and his family moved to London in 1568.  He became a notable miniature painter

Olivier was the son of  a goldsmith. He studied miniature painting under the great Tudor miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard and developed a naturalistic style which was influenced by Italian and Flemish art. His works reflect the courtly elegance of the Late Renaissance world of masquest and revels.

He became a painter of James I's court, was appointed Royal Limner (an illuminator of manuscripts or a painter of ornamental decoration such as miniature portraits) to James 1’s wife Queen Anne. He  painted numerous portraits of the Queen Anne of Denmark and Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. Some of his work is housed in Windsor Castle, and some  of his pen drawings are in the British Museum.


Quiet Conquest, the Huguenots 1685 – 1985. Museum of London 

National Heritage Memorial Fund





Laurence Olivier (1907-1989) is widely considered to be one of the most iconic actors of the twentieth century, dominating the British stage and appearing in over fifty films.

His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent and, in fact, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen; his father was ordained a Reverend in the Church of England. Olivier supposedly imitated the forceful sermons he saw his father give while his mother steered him towards dramatic speeches from plays.

Olivier, encouraged by his parents, acted in school productions and embarked on a career on stage and behind the scenes. He played a variety of Shakespearean roles and was made the first Artistic Director of the National Theatre in 1970. His film roles include Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights (1939) and Maxim de Winter in Rebecca (1940). Olivier won two Academy Awards, three BAFTAS and was the first actor to be made a Lord.


 laurence olivier quim abella










Bernard Palissy c.1510-c.1589 was best known for his pottery, although he was also a glass painter and land surveyor, writer, scientist and lecturer.

Persecuted as a Protestant, he was imprisoned until the constable of Montmorency employed him in the decoration of the Château d’Ecouen. He was then appointed as “inventor of rustic pottery to the king and the queen mother” which gave him protection from persecution.

In 1572, Palissy was warned to flee Paris. He escaped the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and took refuge in eastern France.

He returned to Paris in 1575, Palissy gave public lectures on natural history, which became extremely popular, revealing him as a writer and scientist who contributed many ideas to modern agronomy.

Palissy’s pottery was ‘decorated rustic ware’ , a type of earthenware covered with coloured lead glazes. He made mostly oval or circular dishes, and jugs, decorated with plants and animals and mythological scenes.

Imprisoned for religious reasons in 1588, he died in the dungeons of the Bastille, at the age of 80, a martyr for his faith.
In 19th century, his style was revived and contemporary pottery was made under the name of ‘Palissy Ware’ using coloured glazes motifs of sea creatures.

Palissy Street in East London is named after him.

The Quiet Conquest,

Denis Papin (1647-1712) was an inventor, physicist and mathematician,

Papin was born in Blois and graduated with a medical degree in 1669, originally intending to become a doctor. However he was much more interested in mathematics and mechanics than he was in medicine. He became assistant to Christiaan Huygens, one of the leading scientists of his day.

Papin came to England in 1675 to work with the English physicist Robert Boyle. In 1679 Papin invented his ‘steam digester’ (pressure cooker), a vessel with a tightly fitting lid that compresses the steam, generating a high pressure and raising the boiling point of the water considerably. He also invented a safety valve to prevent the vessel exploding. Papin observed that the enclosed steam in his cooker tended to raise the lid, which led him to conceive of the use of steam to drive a piston in a cylinder, the basic design for early steam engines. His design led to the development of the steam engine, a major contribution to the Industrial Revolution.

The following year, Papin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society where he was appointed as temporary curator of experiments.

He worked on other inventions including the construction of a submarine, an air gun and a grenade launcher. He also experimented with preserving food with chemicals and using a vacuum. In 1709 he built a man-powered paddle-wheel boat that demonstrated the practicability of using apaddle wheel in place of oars on steam-driven ships.

Papin received little in the way of honours in his lifetime, mainly because the importance of his work was not understood until 100 years after his death.

In 2016, however, a record came to light in the London Metropolitan Archives which showed that a 'Denys Papin' had been buried in the cemetery of St Bride's Church in Fleet Street in 1713. There is a campaign to raise funds to erect a memorial plaque in St Bride's Church to commemorate him.

The Quiet Conquest by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson

Denis Papin

Jean Pelletier (d.1704) and his sons were the leading carvers and gilders in London.  He was originally from Paris and came to London in 1682.

Pelletier had  two sons, René  and Thomas, who also worked in the family business.  Pelletier was a prominent framemaker and gilder who made and gilded a huge set of picture frames for  Ralph, 1st Duke of Montagu’s home at Montagu House. Montagu had served as Charles II's ambassador in Paris and had a taste for French Baroque, and on his return he patronised many Huguenot refugee craftsmen. Pelletier also worked at Queen Mary’s apartments at Kensington Palace and many of his frames are  now at Boughton House, Northamptonshire.The frames were of elaborately carved wood, gilded with gold leaf. They interpreted the new style being introduced by Daniel Marot and  used the technique of ‘verre églomisé’ introduced from France. The mirror glass was decorated on the back by applying gold leaf, engraving a pattern in the gold and then applying a layer of blue paint to fill the pattern. This was called 'mosaic work', later given the name verre églomisé after the Parisian picture framer Jean-Baptiste Glomy.

During William III's reign he supplied the Crown with carved and gilded table frames, stands, screens and mirrors. He also  supplied over £600 worth of furnishings for the State Apartments at Hampton Court and three pairs of carved and gilded side tables at Windsor Castle.


 Tessa Murdoch, “Jean, René and Thomas Pelletier, a Huguenot family of carvers and gilders in England 1682-1726.

Jon Pertwee (1919 – 1996)
Most famous for playing the third incarnation of the eccentric Dr Who on television, actor Jon Pertwee was descended from an aristocratic French family. The original Huguenot family name, Perthuis de Laillevault was changed to Pertwee. Jon was born in London to Avice and Roland Pertwee, a respected actor and writer. After making 24 stories as Dr Who, Jon Pertwee found great fame and acclaim as the grumpy scarecrow Worzel Gummidge in a televised series for children, adapted from Barbara Todd’s books. It is said that actress Joan Collins asked him to visit and speak in his Worzel Gummidge voice to her daughter as she lay in a coma. Jon Pertwee died in 1996 leaving a son Sean and daughter Dariel, both of whom are actors.

Source /news/people/obituary-jon-pertwee

Jon Pertwee

DSC00528R0104056.JPGThe Derby Porcelain Factory began as a very small business around 1748. It was probably set up by a Londoner called Andrew Planché. Planché was the son of Huguenot refugees and had briefly been an apprentice jeweller. No-one knows how Planché learned to make porcelain but it is possible that it was something that he was taught by members of the French exile community in London, some of whom worked in the factories at Bow and Chelsea. It is unclear why he left London but Planché is known to have arrived in Derby between 1748 and 1751.

An unsigned agreement in 1756 between Planché, William Duesbury, an enameller, and John Heath, an investor, established a business partnership for the ‘art of making English China’. Planché seems to have left Derby and the porcelain industry not long after this date, leaving Duesbury and Heath in charge of the Nottingham Road factory.

Many of the details of his life remain a mystery but Planché is thought to have modelled a number of the figures seen during early 1750s. Although we can’t prove conclusively exactly who made the figures, the early period of porcelain figure making in Derby is often referred to as the Planché period.

Henri de Portal (1690 –1747) was a papermaker who made the first  watermarked paper for the Bank of England notes. The Portal family came from Poitiers and took refuge in Southampton

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Henri and his brother Guillaume escaped from France with their father Jean Francois. It is said that the children’s old nurse hid the children in an oven so that the soldiers would not find them and that they were hidden in wine casks and were smuggled on a small fishing boat to   Southampton.

Before the Huguenots arrived, most white paper had to be imported from the Continent but in 1686 James II granted a patent to the White Paper Makers Company which consisted of 15 men, 9 of whom were Huguenots. One of their papermills was at South Stonham, which was where the young Henri Portal  found work. He then took the lease of  Bere Mill in 1710 which was so successful that he leased another mill at Laverstoke to expand the business.  Portal was friendly with William Heathcote whose uncle was Governor of the Bank of England. The Bank needed protective paper for their banknotes and he agreed to manufacture a better kind of paper than they had been using previously. It was stronger with better definition and clarity, which greatly reduced the risk of forgery, and in  1727 Henry Portal obtained the privilege of making the notes of the Bank of England. His company also invented the metallic thread incorporated into the paper and the same company has been providing paper for English banknotes right up to the current day, although the firm was sold to De La Rue in 1995. For nearly 200 years the business was handed down from father to son, almost unique in the history of English manufacturers.

Quiet Conquest, the Huguenots 1685 – 1985. Museum of London

Highways and Byways in Hampshire:  D H Moutray Read

Hampshire and the Company of White paper makers:  J. H. Thoma, B.A.


Anne Pratt (1806-1893) was one of the best known English botanical illustrators of the Victorian age. Her mother, Sara Bundock, was of Huguenot descent. Anne Pratt wrote and illustrated more than 20 books. Her works were written in a popular style, and helped to popularise botany in her day.

She is best known for her collection of six volumes: The Flowering Plants, Grasses, Sedges, and Ferns of Great Britain and Their Allies the Club Mosses, Pepperworts, and Horsetails, containing 1500 species, with 300 illustrations. This work had a remarkably long life as a reference work: the illustrations of ferns continued to be used into the second half of the twentieth century, appearing in the Observer's Book of [British] Ferns .

Peter Prelleur 1705 - 1741
The first organist who played Richard Bridge’s magnificent organ (built in 1735) at Christ Church Spitalfields was Huguenot Peter Prelleur, who led an extraordinary double life. He lived in Rose Lane and, as well as playing the organ at Christ Church and composing religious music, he often played in pubs including the Angel & Crown Tavern in Whitechapel. Prelleur’s major legacy is a guide for musicians entitled The Modern Musick-Master published in 1731 and described as “an introduction to singing, after so easy a method that persons of the meanest capacities may (in a short time) learn to sing (in tune) any song that is set to musick”. For three hundred years this was considered the most important singing manual.


prelleur peter 1


Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869)

Roget the lexicographer was born in London in 1779 to a Swiss clergyman. In 1798 he graduated from Edinburgh University with a degree in medicine and began to practice. Roget had an extremely varied career; he worked in London, Manchester and Bristol as a doctor and then travelled through Europe working as a private tutor. In London he gave medical lectures and published essays on the anaesthetic effects of nitrous oxide or “laughing gas” as it became known. From 1827 to 1848 Roget was secretary of The Royal Society. As an inventor, Roget created the first slide rule, a tool to calculate the roots and powers of numbers, a precursor to modern methods and widely used in the teaching of mathematics until the calculator was invented.

Roget always had a fascination for words and for a long time had compiled lists of words to help his writing. This became Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases and was his main body of work after he retired in 1840. The thesaurus was finally published in 1852. Today the use of the word “Roget’s” is seen as a generic term for a dictionary of words with similar meanings. It is widely used as a dictionary of synonyms and is regularly updated.

Rogets Thesauras


Samuel Romilly (1757- 1818) was a British legal reformer. He was born in Frith Street, Soho, to Peter Romilly, a watchmaker and jeweller. His grandfather had fled Montpelier after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and married Margaret Garnault, a fellow Huguenot refugee.

Samuel was well educated and became a good classical scholar with a particular interest in French literature. Romilly was determined to go to the bar, and entered himself at Gray’s Inn, Chancery Lane, in 1778. Romilly was a staunch supporter of the abolition of the slave trade, and gave his support to William Wilberforce’s abolition campaign.

With his law reforms he abolished and repealed many draconian statutes, including hanging, drawing and quartering, and the Elizabethan statutes of stealing and soldiers begging without permission from their commanding officer being capital offences.


Samuel Romilly 2







R.L. Roumieu designed the French Hospital in Victoria Park, Hackney in 1857. It was built by 1865, requisitioned in 1941 and moved to Rochester in 1960 where there is a portrait of Roumieu. His design was described at the time as 'a French chateau of the age Francis 1'. Roumieu supervised the building of the hospital himself as the surveyor fell out with him.
His practise was continued by his son Reginald St Aubyn Roumieu ARIBA who worked with two partners, firstly Thomas Kesteven and then Alfred Aitchison. He seems not to have been as productive as his father, but was better known for his philanthropy. His obit in The Builder (7 July 1877) lists many of the charities he was involved in, and for which he was made a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. He was governor of the Foundling Hospital, London; Honorary Architect and Director of the French Hospital, Hackney, which was designed by his father; and he helped to found the Huguenot Society of which he was Treasurer and later President.

Julia Sawalha (1968-)
Julia Sawalha was born in South London and is a highly successful actress appearing in many popular television programmes. She is particularly well known for her role as the sensible daughter Saffie, the perfect foil to Joanna Lumley and Jennifer Saunders in the long running sitcom Absolutely Fabulous. Her family tree stretches back over several generations of silk weavers living around Spitalfields. Julia’s ancestors on her mother’s side had the name Dubock; they originated from the small village of Luneray in Normandy and were forced into exile after the decree of Louis XIV in 1685 stripped French protestants of their rights. Her maternal relative William Dubock, listed as a silk weaver in the 1861 census. William changed career to become a cheesemonger and grocer after the ban on French silk imports was lifted in 1861, forcing many East End weavers out of business.

Julia Sawalha

Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873) was an Irish journalist and writer of supernatural Victorian ghost stories. Related to the Irish playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Le Fanu was the son of Huguenot parents Thomas Philip Le Fanu, who was a clergyman, and Emma Lucretia Dobbin Le Fanu. He studied law but became a journalist and started to write short stories which were first published anonymously. His work combined Gothic horror with inner psychological insight. After giving birth to four children and suffering with poor mental health, his wife Susanna died. It is thought that Le Fanu blamed himself. He became reclusive, producing his most successful work. He is probably best known for his novel Uncle Silas in 1864. However, it is the vampire novella Carmilla in 1872 which has had the biggest effect on the horror genre. It is thought that Bram Stoker was greatly influenced by Le Fanu in his writing of Dracula.


J S Fanu

James Tillard (1754-1828) was born in London. The Tillard family was originally of Huguenot descent and had settled in Devon in the sixteenth century. A number of the family members became mayors of Totnes in the early seventeenth century.

James' wealth, it would appear, was due to an inheritance of a good deal of property in east London around Norton Folgate, Bishopsgate and Spitalfields. By 1827 all the Tillard estate in Norton Folgate was owned by James Tillard.

On his death in Ramsgate in 1828 James Tillard bequeathed not only £2,000 to rebuild St Mary's Church in Lower Hardres/Petham but also contributed to the erection, enlargement and repair of other neighbouring churches. He bequeathed substantial sums of money to local hospitals and asylums, parishes and other institutions. He was also a member of The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and bequeathed £30,000 towards work of the Society in Calcutta.

James Tillard's memory is "ever honoured and regarded as a pattern to the wealthy; as a friend to the distressed".

Tillard Estate

The St John and Tillard Estate

georgeWashingtonGeorge Washington was the very first President of the United States (1789–1797) and one of its ‘Founding Fathers’. He helped to write the United States Constitution, which is still the law in America today.

He was known as the ‘Father of his country’. He was an effective President who was good at organising things and who discussed problems with other people before making decisions

George Washington was born in 1732. His father died when he was 11 years old. He had a very basic education and his mother could not afford to send him to college, so he left school at the age of 15.

He joined the US Army and was a Major by the time he was 20, rising to become a Lieutenant Colonel, then Colonel and finally a Major General

He led the US Army; he was brave in battle and a good leader.

He played an important part in the American Revolution, when the American colonists won their independence from British rule.

George Washington was the great–great–great–grandson of a Huguenot named Nicholas Martiau (1591–1657). Martiau was born near the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle in France. He left France to come to England and he was mentioned in the register of the famous Huguenot church of Threadneedle Street, London in 1615.

In 1619, Nicholas was naturalised English. A year later he left England on a ship called the Francis Bonaventure and arrived in Virginia. He built a fence around the Jamestown Fort and this helped the settlers to survive a Native American uprising in 1622.

When George Washington married, his wife wore a dress of yellow brocade, silver bodice & silver petticoat. The dress was made in Spitalfields by the Huguenot silkweavers.

There have been 43 US Presidents, and 21 of them have Huguenot ancestors!

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