PETER NOUAILLE – A SPITALFIELDS’ WEAVER WHO MOVED TO KENT
Peter Nouaille was the son of a Huguenot refugee who came to Spitalfields after 1785.
He was born in 1723 and in 1763 married Elizabeth De La Mare whose Huguenot father lived at and owned property called Greatness, near Sevenoaks, Kent, 23 miles from London.
It included a water-powered corn mill which Peter inherited and in 1760 he turned this into a silk mill.
In 1733, the Spitalfields’ weavers got Parliament to give them a monopoly of all weaving within 20 miles of London. The mill at Greatness was just outside the statutory limits so Peter escaped the monopoly. He specialised in silk crepe which was becoming a fashionable product.
In 1816 the mill was 140 feet long and 40 feet wide with at least two storeys – one of the biggest in Kent. It used an improved undershot water-wheel which he patented in 1812 and new methods of spinning (‘throwing’) silk.
Here he employed over 100 people, mainly women and children for whom he ran evening classes, and hired a local doctor to provide health care. He also built a row of cottages for senior staff.
In 1793, he briefly joined forces with another Huguenot friend, George Courtauld, but they did not get on and Peter later said that ‘he would not continue such a man in business for 500 a year’.
He also had much wider interests. ‘His house was constantly frequented by the most distinguished literary characters of the time’ wrote a friend later.
When the first Peter died, his son took over but after the end of the Napoleonic War in 1815, and the removal of protective tarrifs in 1823, the silk industry ran into problems, so the second Peter decided to close the business and sell the mill which was demolished not long after.
Isaac Olivier (c.1565-1617)
Isaac Olivier was born in Rouen, and his family moved to London in 1568. He became a notable miniature painter
Olivier was the son of a goldsmith. He studied miniature painting under the great Tudor miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard and developed a naturalistic style which was influenced by Italian and Flemish art. His works reflect the courtly elegance of the Late Renaissance world of masquest and revels.
He became a painter of James I's court, was appointed Royal Limner (an illuminator of manuscripts or a painter of ornamental decoration such as miniature portraits) to James 1’s wife Queen Anne. He painted numerous portraits of the Queen Anne of Denmark and Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. Some of his work is housed in Windsor Castle, and some of his pen drawings are in the British Museum.
Quiet Conquest, the Huguenots 1685 – 1985. Museum of London https://www.britannica.com/biography/Isaac-Oliver
National Heritage Memorial Fund http://www.nhmf.org.uk/news/one-finest-jacobean-portraits-purchased-nation-and-will-remain-its-historic-home-wales
Laurence Olivier (1907-1989) is widely considered to be one of the most iconic actors of the twentieth century, dominating the British stage and appearing in over fifty films.
His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent and, in fact, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen; his father was ordained a Reverend in the Church of England. Olivier supposedly imitated the forceful sermons he saw his father give while his mother steered him towards dramatic speeches from plays.
Olivier, encouraged by his parents, acted in school productions and embarked on a career on stage and behind the scenes. He played a variety of Shakespearean roles and was made the first Artistic Director of the National Theatre in 1970. His film roles include Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights (1939) and Maxim de Winter in Rebecca (1940). Olivier won two Academy Awards, three BAFTAS and was the first actor to be made a Lord.
Bernard Palissy c.1510-c.1589 was best known for his pottery, although he was also a glass painter and land surveyor, writer, scientist and lecturer.
Persecuted as a Protestant, he was imprisoned until the constable of Montmorency employed him in the decoration of the Château d’Ecouen. He was then appointed as “inventor of rustic pottery to the king and the queen mother” which gave him protection from persecution.
In 1572, Palissy was warned to flee Paris. He escaped the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and took refuge in eastern France.
He returned to Paris in 1575, Palissy gave public lectures on natural history, which became extremely popular, revealing him as a writer and scientist who contributed many ideas to modern agronomy.
Palissy’s pottery was ‘decorated rustic ware’ , a type of earthenware covered with coloured lead glazes. He made mostly oval or circular dishes, and jugs, decorated with plants and animals and mythological scenes.
Imprisoned for religious reasons in 1588, he died in the dungeons of the Bastille, at the age of 80, a martyr for his faith.
In 19th century, his style was revived and contemporary pottery was made under the name of ‘Palissy Ware’ using coloured glazes motifs of sea creatures.
Palissy Street in East London is named after him.
The Quiet Conquest, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Bernard-Palissyhttp://www.museepalissy.net/en/museum/article/bernard-palissy-grand-artisan-of-works-of-the-earch
Denis Papin (1647-1712) was an inventor, physicist and mathematician,
Papin was born in Blois and graduated with a medical degree in 1669, originally intending to become a doctor. However he was much more interested in mathematics and mechanics than he was in medicine. He became assistant to Christiaan Huygens, one of the leading scientists of his day.
Papin came to England in 1675 to work with the English physicist Robert Boyle. In 1679 Papin invented his ‘steam digester’ (pressure cooker), a vessel with a tightly fitting lid that compresses the steam, generating a high pressure and raising the boiling point of the water considerably. He also invented a safety valve to prevent the vessel exploding. Papin observed that the enclosed steam in his cooker tended to raise the lid, which led him to conceive of the use of steam to drive a piston in a cylinder, the basic design for early steam engines. His design led to the development of the steam engine, a major contribution to the Industrial Revolution.
The following year, Papin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society where he was appointed as temporary curator of experiments.
He worked on other inventions including the construction of a submarine, an air gun and a grenade launcher. He also experimented with preserving food with chemicals and using a vacuum. In 1709 he built a man-powered paddle-wheel boat that demonstrated the practicability of using apaddle wheel in place of oars on steam-driven ships.
Papin received little in the way of honours in his lifetime, mainly because the importance of his work was not understood until 100 years after his death.
In 2016, however, a record came to light in the London Metropolitan Archives which showed that a 'Denys Papin' had been buried in the cemetery of St Bride's Church in Fleet Street in 1713. There is a campaign to raise funds to erect a memorial plaque in St Bride's Church to commemorate him.
The Quiet Conquest https://www.britannica.com/biography/Denis-Papinhttp://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Papin.htmlArticle by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertsonhttps://www.justgiving.com/crowdfunding/papin-memorial-london
Jean Pelletier (d.1704) and his sons were the leading carvers and gilders in London. He was originally from Paris and came to London in 1682.
Pelletier had two sons, René and Thomas, who also worked in the family business. Pelletier was a prominent framemaker and gilder who made and gilded a huge set of picture frames for Ralph, 1st Duke of Montagu’s home at Montagu House. Montagu had served as Charles II's ambassador in Paris and had a taste for French Baroque, and on his return he patronised many Huguenot refugee craftsmen. Pelletier also worked at Queen Mary’s apartments at Kensington Palace and many of his frames are now at Boughton House, Northamptonshire.The frames were of elaborately carved wood, gilded with gold leaf. They interpreted the new style being introduced by Daniel Marot and used the technique of ‘verre églomisé’ introduced from France. The mirror glass was decorated on the back by applying gold leaf, engraving a pattern in the gold and then applying a layer of blue paint to fill the pattern. This was called 'mosaic work', later given the name verre églomisé after the Parisian picture framer Jean-Baptiste Glomy.
During William III's reign he supplied the Crown with carved and gilded table frames, stands, screens and mirrors. He also supplied over £600 worth of furnishings for the State Apartments at Hampton Court and three pairs of carved and gilded side tables at Windsor Castle.
Tessa Murdoch, “Jean, René and Thomas Pelletier, a Huguenot family of carvers and gilders in England 1682-1726.
Jon Pertwee (1919 – 1996)
Most famous for playing the third incarnation of the eccentric Dr Who on television, actor Jon Pertwee was descended from an aristocratic French family.
The original Huguenot family name, Perthuis de Laillevault was changed to Pertwee. Jon was born in London to Avice and Roland Pertwee, a respected actor and writer.
After making 24 stories as Dr Who, Jon Pertwee found great fame and acclaim as the grumpy scarecrow Worzel Gummidge in a televised series for children, adapted from Barbara Todd’s books. It is said that actress Joan Collins asked him to visit and speak in his Worzel Gummidge voice to her daughter as she lay in a coma.
Jon Pertwee died in 1996 leaving a son Sean and daughter Dariel, both of whom are actors.
Source www.independent.co.uk /news/people/obituary-jon-pertwee http://doctorwho.org.nz
The Derby Porcelain Factory began as a very small business around 1748. It was probably set up by a Londoner called Andrew Planché. Planché was the son of Huguenot refugees and had briefly been an apprentice jeweller. No-one knows how Planché learned to make porcelain but it is possible that it was something that he was taught by members of the French exile community in London, some of whom worked in the factories at Bow and Chelsea. It is unclear why he left London but Planché is known to have arrived in Derby between 1748 and 1751.
An unsigned agreement in 1756 between Planché, William Duesbury, an enameller, and John Heath, an investor, established a business partnership for the ‘art of making English China’. Planché seems to have left Derby and the porcelain industry not long after this date, leaving Duesbury and Heath in charge of the Nottingham Road factory.
Many of the details of his life remain a mystery but Planché is thought to have modelled a number of the figures seen during early 1750s. Although we can’t prove conclusively exactly who made the figures, the early period of porcelain figure making in Derby is often referred to as the Planché period.
Henri de Portal (1690 –1747) was a papermaker who made the first watermarked paper for the Bank of England notes. The Portal family came from Poitiers and took refuge in Southampton
Henri and his brother Guillaume escaped from France with their father Jean Francois. It is said that the children’s old nurse hid the children in an oven so that the soldiers would not find them and that they were hidden in wine casks and were smuggled on a small fishing boat to Southampton.
Before the Huguenots arrived, most white paper had to be imported from the Continent but in 1686 James II granted a patent to the White Paper Makers Company which consisted of 15 men, 9 of whom were Huguenots. One of their papermills was at South Stonham, which was where the young Henri Portal found work. He then took the lease of Bere Mill in 1710 which was so successful that he leased another mill at Laverstoke to expand the business. Portal was friendly with William Heathcote whose uncle was Governor of the Bank of England. The Bank needed protective paper for their banknotes and he agreed to manufacture a better kind of paper than they had been using previously. It was stronger with better definition and clarity, which greatly reduced the risk of forgery, and in 1727 Henry Portal obtained the privilege of making the notes of the Bank of England. His company also invented the metallic thread incorporated into the paper and the same company has been providing paper for English banknotes right up to the current day, although the firm was sold to De La Rue in 1995. For nearly 200 years the business was handed down from father to son, almost unique in the history of English manufacturers.
Quiet Conquest, the Huguenots 1685 – 1985. Museum of London
Highways and Byways in Hampshire: D H Moutray Read
Hampshire and the Company of White paper makers: J. H. Thoma, B.A.
Anne Pratt (1806-1893) was one of the best known English botanical illustrators of the Victorian age. Her mother, Sara Bundock, was of Huguenot descent. Anne Pratt wrote and illustrated more than 20 books. Her works were written in a popular style, and helped to popularise botany in her day.
She is best known for her collection of six volumes: The Flowering Plants, Grasses, Sedges, and Ferns of Great Britain and Their Allies the Club Mosses, Pepperworts, and Horsetails, containing 1500 species, with 300 illustrations. This work had a remarkably long life as a reference work: the illustrations of ferns continued to be used into the second half of the twentieth century, appearing in the Observer's Book of [British] Ferns .
Peter Prelleur 1705 - 1741
The first organist who played Richard Bridge’s magnificent organ (built in 1735) at Christ Church Spitalfields was Huguenot Peter Prelleur, who led an extraordinary double life. He lived in Rose Lane and, as well as playing the organ at Christ Church and composing religious music, he often played in pubs including the Angel & Crown Tavern in Whitechapel.
Prelleur’s major legacy is a guide for musicians entitled The Modern Musick-Master published in 1731 and described as “an introduction to singing, after so easy a method that persons of the meanest capacities may (in a short time) learn to sing (in tune) any song that is set to musick”. For three hundred years this was considered the most important singing manual.
J D Rockefeller Snr
John Davison Rockefeller Snr was an American business magnate and philanthropist. It is widely considered that he was the wealthiest American of all time, and was once the richest person in modern history (Amazon and Facebook probably outstrip him now!).
In the 1850s a new industry emerged when refiners discovered that refined petroleum (which up until that point had been bought chiefly for its supposed medicinal properties) made an ideal fuel for lamps. Rockefeller foresaw the potential of refining Pennsylvania crude oil, which would revolutionise the way people lit their homes, fuelled their vehicles and powered their industries.
He founded, with 2 others, the Standard Oil Company in 1863 in Cleveland, Ohio. By 1899 Standard Oil controlled 90 to 95 percent of the oil refined in the United States. By 1911 this was considered a monopoly and the company was broken up, later becoming Esso, BP, Mobil and Amoco amongst others.
John Davison Rockefeller was born on July 8, 1839 in Richford, New York and died on May 23rd 1937 in Florida. He was the second of six children of William Avery Rockefeller and Eliza Davison. William (1810- 1906) was the kind of man they called a scoundrel in the 1800s. He was a peddler, a quack, an itinerant and generally a ne'er-do-well who had several wives and many children. He spent much time away (some with a bigamous second wife) so JD had to help his mother look after the first family until aged 16, he found a job which set him on the road to success. Surprisingly William “snake oil pedlar” Rockefeller’s own father - Godfrey Lewis Rockefeller (1783 – 1857), was an American farmer and businessman who was an early settler in Richford, New York. His parents were William and Christina Rockefeller who were third cousins; William's grandfather was Johann Peter Rockefeller, a miller who migrated from Rhineland, Germany to Philadelphia where he was a plantation owner and landholder in Somerville and Amwell, New Jersey. Christina's grandfather was Johann Peter's cousin, Diell Rockefeller, who immigrated to Germantown, Columbia, New York. In 1806 Godfrey married former schoolteacher, Lucy Avery (1786 – 1867) despite opposition from her parents. This was because the Rockefellers were German Evangelicals and Lucy Avery’s ancestors were Puritans who had emigrated from Devon to Salem, Massachusetts, in about 1630.
From the 12th C the name Avery can be found many times in the south west of England and in St Stephens Church in Saltash, Devon there is a plaque placed in memory of the Avery family and their long-standing association with the area.
In the 17th C many Averys emmigrated to the New World and four branches developed – the Groton branch, the Dedham line, the Portsmouth line and the Ipswitch branch. Lucy’s parents descended from the Groton branch in Conneticut. Samuel Avery (1731-1806) her grandfather, married a Sybil Noyes who was descended from William Bradford who came over on the Mayflower. William Bradford was born in the village of Austerfield, Doncaster in 1589. Despite being a long-standing member of the Separatist group and playing a huge part in their plans to sail across the Atlantic, Bradford was yet to assume any leadership role for the Pilgrims - but that was to change very quickly. Against all the odds, he overcame the terrible sickness that swept through the Mayflower during the first winter and accounted for more than half the lives of the people on board. Then, while grieving the sudden death of his wife - who passed away while the ship was anchored off Cape Cod - Bradford was chosen to lead the group after the first Governor John Carver collapsed and died less than six months after the Mayflower landed. He served as Governor for many years, gaining re-election time and time again, and played a huge part in gaining the trust of the Native Americans - which led to what became the first Thanksgiving in 1623.
So, returning to J D Rockefeller Sn. Does he descend from Huguenots?. The answer is, sadly, apparently not! His paternal side were German evangelical protestants and his maternal side descended from English Puritans.
Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869)
Roget the lexicographer was born in London in 1779 to a Swiss clergyman. In 1798 he graduated from Edinburgh University with a degree in medicine and began to practice. Roget had an extremely varied career; he worked in London, Manchester and Bristol as a doctor and then travelled through Europe working as a private tutor. In London he gave medical lectures and published essays on the anaesthetic effects of nitrous oxide or “laughing gas” as it became known. From 1827 to 1848 Roget was secretary of The Royal Society. As an inventor, Roget created the first slide rule, a tool to calculate the roots and powers of numbers, a precursor to modern methods and widely used in the teaching of mathematics until the calculator was invented.
Roget always had a fascination for words and for a long time had compiled lists of words to help his writing. This became Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases and was his main body of work after he retired in 1840. The thesaurus was finally published in 1852. Today the use of the word “Roget’s” is seen as a generic term for a dictionary of words with similar meanings. It is widely used as a dictionary of synonyms and is regularly updated.
Samuel Romilly (1757- 1818) was a British legal reformer. He was born in Frith Street, Soho, to Peter Romilly, a watchmaker and jeweller. His grandfather had fled Montpelier after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and married Margaret Garnault, a fellow Huguenot refugee.
Samuel was well educated and became a good classical scholar with a particular interest in French literature. Romilly was determined to go to the bar, and entered himself at Gray’s Inn, Chancery Lane, in 1778. Romilly was a staunch supporter of the abolition of the slave trade, and gave his support to William Wilberforce’s abolition campaign.
With his law reforms he abolished and repealed many draconian statutes, including hanging, drawing and quartering, and the Elizabethan statutes of stealing and soldiers begging without permission from their commanding officer being capital offences.
John ‘The Sexton’ Rondeau 1706-1790, 3 Wood Street/4 Wilkes Street
Jean Rondeau the elder was a serge weaver born in 1666 in Paris into a family that had been involved in weaving for three generations. Escaping persecution for his Protestant faith, he came to London in the mid-17th century and settled in Brick Lane, fathering twelve children. The Rondeau’s were one of the oldest families in Spitalfields. Weaving had taken place in this area outside the City walls since 1640. However, the main influx of Huguenot silk weavers came later, in the 1680’s, when English masters welcomed cheap, skilled labourers during the dominance of French fashion, which depended on pattern rather than cut. Jean Rondeau went on to great success as a weaver in London and in 1723 he built a fine house, number 3 Wood Street (4 Wilkes St). John could not write and signed his will with an X before he died in 1740.
Jean’s son John Rondeau the younger, born 1706 in Brick Lane became a master silk weaver and in 1741 he commissioned textile designs from Anna Maria Garthwaite, the famous designer of Spitalfields silks.
As a measure of John the younger’s status at this time, in 1745 he sent 47 of his employees to join the fight against Bonnie Prince Charlie.
In 1749 he married Margaret Roberts, a widow, in a clandestine marriage at or near the Fleet Prison. "Clandestine" marriages were those that had an element of secrecy to them: perhaps they took place away from a home parish (John’s parish was Christ Church Spitalfields), and without either Banns or marriage licence. They went on to have several children.
However, the weaving industry changed in the mid18th century, partly because the most successful masters tended to leave for the land or liberal professions, being replaced by humbler journeymen, usually Englishmen. By 1788 there was said to be not one silk master or manufacturer resident in Bethnal Green, the remaining journeymen weavers working in their own homes.
It is thought that John the younger went from living in the largest house in Wilkes Street to being flung into debtors’ prison. He was forced to seek work as a Sexton at Christ Church in 1761 until his death in 1790, when he was buried in the crypt in a lead coffin labelled “John Rondeau, Sexton of this Parish,”
His remains were exhumed at the end of the twentieth century and transported to the Natural History Museum for study. His descendants are still connected with Christ Church to this day.
No 3 Wood Street ( 4 Wilkes St) later became a Protestant Dissenting School Following the dispersal of the Huguenots, waves of other immigrants each added their influence to Spitalfields. Notably Irish, Jewish and, most recently, Bengali.
R.L. Roumieu designed the French Hospital in Victoria Park, Hackney in 1857. It was built by 1865, requisitioned in 1941 and moved to Rochester in 1960 where there is a portrait of Roumieu. His design was described at the time as 'a French chateau of the age Francis 1'. Roumieu supervised the building of the hospital himself as the surveyor fell out with him.
His practise was continued by his son Reginald St Aubyn Roumieu ARIBA who worked with two partners, firstly Thomas Kesteven and then Alfred Aitchison. He seems not to have been as productive as his father, but was better known for his philanthropy. His obit in The Builder (7 July 1877) lists many of the charities he was involved in, and for which he was made a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. He was governor of the Foundling Hospital, London; Honorary Architect and Director of the French Hospital, Hackney, which was designed by his father; and he helped to found the Huguenot Society of which he was Treasurer and later President.
Julia Sawalha (1968-)
Julia Sawalha was born in South London and is a highly successful actress appearing in many popular television programmes. She is particularly well known for her role as the sensible daughter Saffie, the perfect foil to Joanna Lumley and Jennifer Saunders in the long running sitcom, Absolutely Fabulous. Her family tree stretches back over several generations of silk weavers living around Spitalfields. Julia’s ancestors on her mother’s side had the name Dubock; they originated from the small village of Luneray in Normandy and were forced into exile after the decree of Louis XIV in 1685 stripped French protestants of their rights. Her maternal relative William Dubock, listed as a silk weaver in the 1861 census. William changed career to become a cheesemonger and grocer after the ban on French silk imports was lifted in 1861, forcing many East End weavers out of business.
Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873) was an Irish journalist and writer of supernatural Victorian ghost stories. Related to the Irish playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Le Fanu was the son of Huguenot parents Thomas Philip Le Fanu, who was a clergyman, and Emma Lucretia Dobbin Le Fanu.
He studied law but became a journalist and started to write short stories which were first published anonymously. His work combined Gothic horror with inner psychological insight.
After giving birth to four children and suffering with poor mental health, his wife Susanna died. It is thought that Le Fanu blamed himself. He became reclusive, producing his most successful work.
He is probably best known for his novel Uncle Silas in 1864. However, it is the vampire novella Carmilla in 1872 which has had the biggest effect on the horror genre. It is thought that Bram Stoker was greatly influenced by Le Fanu in his writing of Dracula.
Source http://www.online-literature.com/lefanu/ https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2014/aug/28/sheridan-le-fanu-two-centuries-birth-vampire-ghost-stories
Anne Tanqueray (1691-1733)
Subordinate goldsmith to George 1st and probably the best woman silversmith of all time. As the eldest daughter of David Willaume, a prominent Huguenot silversmith/goldsmith, who had come to London from Metz, north east France in 1685, it was probably not surprising that she became involved in the craft of her father. On 19 October 1690 David had married Marie Mettayer at the French Protestant chapel in Brown’s Lane, Spitalfields where Marie’s father - Samuel Mettayer was the Minister. Ann was their first child, born a year later on the 19th July 1691. Three more children arrived, but sadly two died in infancy. The other surviving child David II also became a silversmith. The Manor of Tingrith in Bedfordshire was either bought by David II as a family home, or David Willaume Senior for retirement purposes.
Ann must have watched her father working on a regular basis and it would seem that she, too, trained in the art of silversmithing although not undertaking a formal apprenticeship as such. Incidentally, becoming a journeyman silversmith required young women of better than average physique, for the tools whereby silver was formed into such things as tankards, dishes, trays, kettles, teapots, and the like were neither light nor easily handled. There was the heavy sledge hammer weighing eight or more pounds with which the silver was beaten on the specially shaped anvils many times in the course of making a piece. Perhaps Ann was not of such muscular form as she seems to have concentrated on small items!
On the 16th September 1708 David Willaume, her father, formally contracted with David Tanqueray (originally from St Lo in Normandy) to ‘teach him the skills of goldsmithing’ as an indentured apprentice for seven years. Nine years later Ann and ‘the apprentice’ were married in 1717 although he did not finish his apprenticeship until 1722. There is some doubt about this last date as he appears to have his own apprentice by May 1718 when he calls himself a citizen and goldsmith. David and Anne had two surviving sons, but also 2 daughters (Ann b1718, MaryAnn b1723).
Her husband established his own workshop probably in Green Street, Leicester Fields and later in Pall Mall, entering his first mark as a largeworker in 1713 and it is likely that Ann created some of the items bearing her husband's mark. His second mark (Stirling) was in 1720.
On David’s death (which, strangely, does not seem to be recorded) and the fact that he was still paying for his apprentice in July 1723 (although this may have been Anne using his name), he appears to have died at the end of 1723. Anne, being resourceful and obviously skilled in her own right and despite being a working mother of young children, took over his business and entered two marks of her own (Sterling and New Standard) in the Goldsmiths Touch Register.
To be a woman silversmith in the 17/18th centuries was apparently not that unusual. There were, between 1697 and the Victorian era, a total of 63 women silversmiths in London, each possessed of her own registered touch mark. Ann Tanqueray would have had the opportunity to produce her own work (mostly small silver items) and oversee skilled journeymen making larger pieces. Tanqueray's workshop was noted for its high level of excellence and in 1729 -1732 it became Subordinate Goldsmith to King George 1st.
Ann Tanqueray died on 21 November 1733, aged just 42 and was buried 4 days later in Tingrith Church, near the family home in Bedfordshire. In her will she left her tools to her two sons (David and Thomas) who were not yet 21 years old.
Examples of Ann Tanqueray’s work can be found in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the National Museum Wales, and at Welbeck Abbey.
 Waxantiques description: www.waxantiques.com
 Ancestry.co.uk Apprentice records
 British Museum Collectors online for David Tanqueray
 Collector’s Weekly article Thomas Hamilton Ormsbee — April 3rd, 2009This article originally appeared in American Collector magazine, a publication which ran from 1933-1948 and served antique collectors and dealers.
 Ancestry.co.uk wills
James Tillard (1754-1828) was born in London. The Tillard family was originally of Huguenot descent and had settled in Devon in the sixteenth century. A number of the family members became mayors of Totnes in the early seventeenth century.
James' wealth, it would appear, was due to an inheritance of a good deal of property in east London around Norton Folgate, Bishopsgate and Spitalfields. By 1827 all the Tillard estate in Norton Folgate was owned by James Tillard.
On his death in Ramsgate in 1828 James Tillard bequeathed not only £2,000 to rebuild St Mary's Church in Lower Hardres/Petham but also contributed to the erection, enlargement and repair of other neighbouring churches. He bequeathed substantial sums of money to local hospitals and asylums, parishes and other institutions.
He was also a member of The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and bequeathed £30,000 towards work of the Society in Calcutta.
James Tillard's memory is "ever honoured and regarded as a pattern to the wealthy; as a friend to the distressed".
George Washington was the very first President of the United States (1789–1797) and one of its ‘Founding Fathers’. He helped to write the United States Constitution, which is still the law in America today.
He was known as the ‘Father of his country’. He was an effective President who was good at organising things and who discussed problems with other people before making decisions
George Washington was born in 1732. His father died when he was 11 years old. He had a very basic education and his mother could not afford to send him to college, so he left school at the age of 15.
He joined the US Army and was a Major by the time he was 20, rising to become a Lieutenant Colonel, then Colonel and finally a Major General
He led the US Army; he was brave in battle and a good leader.
He played an important part in the American Revolution, when the American colonists won their independence from British rule.
George Washington was the great–great–great–grandson of a Huguenot named Nicholas Martiau (1591–1657). Martiau was born near the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle in France. He left France to come to England and he was mentioned in the register of the famous Huguenot church of Threadneedle Street, London in 1615.
In 1619, Nicholas was naturalised English. A year later he left England on a ship called the Francis Bonaventure and arrived in Virginia. He built a fence around the Jamestown Fort and this helped the settlers to survive a Native American uprising in 1622.
When George Washington married, his wife wore a dress of yellow brocade, silver bodice & silver petticoat. The dress was made in Spitalfields by the Huguenot silkweavers.
There have been 43 US Presidents, and 21 of them have Huguenot ancestors!
David Willaume 1 - goldsmith/metalworker; banker/financier
Born on 7 June 1658 on the Pont des Morts (the Bridge of the Dead), in Metz France, he was the third of six children of Adam Willaume and Anne Phillipe who had married in 1651. This somewhat unglamorous sounding birthplace – The Bridge of the Dead – allegedly owes its name to the origin of its construction. The bridge was built in 1282 by the hospital of St. Nicholas who took and sold the best piece of clothes of every dead person in Metz in order to pay for it. The Willaume family presumably lived nearby. Today there still exits a Street of the Bridge of the Dead in Metz.
David, having been born into a family of goldsmiths was probably apprenticed to his father and became a Master Goldsmith on 18 April 1680. There is no record of him having established a hallmark in Metz and his name is not in the list of goldsmiths in Metz for 1684. At this point in time, three events contributed to David’s decision to leave Metz, a Protestant stronghold. Firstly, punitive taxes had been introduced on the sale of plate, the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685 and the manufacture of gold items and large pieces of silver were prohibited. It is not certain when he arrived in London, but he was endenizened on the 16 December 1687. He married Maria Mettayer in the French Chapel in Spitalfields on the 9th October 1688 and they had four children of whom only two survived – Anne and David II.
David Willaume I was a successful man setting up business at the sign of Windsor Castle near Charing Cross and selling jewellery as well. His first registered hallmark was not until November 1698, but with a different address – the sign of the Golden Ball, Pall Mall. By 1714 he had moved again to premises on the west side of St James Street, Mayfair where the business remained with the same sign until 1746 (although he retired in 1728 when his son David Willaume II succeeded him). He enjoyed the patronage of the wealthiest clients in England probably attracted by his grand designs in the French fashion and his use of heavy metal and fine casting techniques.
Some goldsmiths at this time, including David Willaume I, also started a form of banking and the phrase ‘running-cashes’ came into place. They were in effect providing banking facilities prior to the establishment of banks at the beginning of the 18th century. These merchants had enough assets to issue cash loans, bills of exchange (similar to cheques) and to exchange cash for plate taken from customers who wished to liquidate or borrow money against their plate.
During his 30 years of working life, David trained 17 apprentices, 12 of whom went on to have their own marks, including David Tanqueray who married his master’s daughter Anne Willaume.
David Willaume I does not seem to have been hugely fond of his son-in-law David Tanqueray as in his will drawn up in 1720, he leaves only £20 to David, £5 to the poor of the parish of St Martin’s in the Fields (where he was living), his goods and chattels and remaining estate to his beloved son David II, and £80 to his daughter Ann with the clear instruction that the money be given directly to her for her own use and implying that Tanqueray should not get his hands on it!
David Willaume’s precise date of death is not certain, but his will was proved on 26 January 1741 and he was buried at St Nicholas Church, in Tingrith, Bedfordshire on the 27 April 1741, some 2 months after probate was granted. Perhaps the weather had been bad that year and travelling to Bedfordshire with a coffin in mid-winter may have been difficult.
David Willaume’s work can be seen in the V&A and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.